It was written using cuneiforma script adopted from the Sumerians using wedge-shaped signs pressed in wet clay. As employed by Akkadian scribes the adapted cuneiform script could represent either a Sumerian logograms i. However, in Akkadian the script practically became a fully fledged syllabic scriptand the original logographic nature of cuneiform became secondary. However, logograms for frequent words such as 'god' and 'temple' were still used.
By the early 21st century some 30, tablets or fragments of old akkadian writing and grammar games in the Hittite language had been recovered through archaeological excavations. The overwhelming majority of these were found in the tablet collections of Hattusa, although additional Origin and character of cuneiform The origins of cuneiform may be traced back approximately to the end of the 4th millennium bce.
At that time the Sumerians, a people of unknown ethnic and linguistic affinitiesinhabited southern Mesopotamia and the region west of the mouth of the Euphrates known as Chaldea. While it does not follow that they were the earliest inhabitants of the region or the true originators of their system of writing, it is to them that the first attested traces of cuneiform writing are conclusively assigned.
The earliest written records in the Sumerian language are pictographic tablets from Uruk Erechevidently lists or ledgers of commodities identified by drawings of the objects and accompanied by numerals and personal names.
Such word writing was able to express only the basic ideas of concrete objects. Numerical notions were easily rendered by the repetitional use of strokes or circles. However, the representation of proper names, for example, necessitated an early recourse to the rebus principle—i.
This brought about a transition from pure word writing to a partial phonetic script. Sumerian words were largely monosyllabic, so the signs generally denoted syllables, and the resulting mixture is termed a word-syllabic script.
The inventory of phonetic symbols henceforth enabled the Sumerians to denote grammatical elements by phonetic complements added to the word signs logograms or ideograms. Because a logogram often represented several related notions with different names e.
In the course of the 3rd millennium the writing became successively more cursive, and the pictographs developed into conventionalized linear drawings.
Due to the prevalent use of clay tablets as writing material stone, metal, or wood also were employed occasionallythe linear strokes acquired a wedge-shaped appearance by being pressed into the soft clay with the slanted edge of a stylus.
Curving lines disappeared from writing, and the normal order of signs was fixed as running from left to right, without any word-divider. This change from earlier columns running downward entailed turning the signs on one side. Spread and development of cuneiform Before these developments had been completed, the Sumerian writing system was adopted by the Akkadians, Semitic invaders who established themselves in Mesopotamia about the middle of the 3rd millennium.
In adapting the script to their wholly different language, the Akkadians retained the Sumerian logograms and combinations of logograms for more complex notions but pronounced them as the corresponding Akkadian words.
They also kept the phonetic values but extended them far beyond the original Sumerian inventory of simple types open or closed syllables like ba or ab. Many more complex syllabic values of Sumerian logograms of the type kan, mul, bat were transferred to the phonetic level, and polyphony became an increasingly serious complication in Akkadian cuneiform e.
The Akkadian readings of the logograms added new complicated values.
The earliest type of Semitic cuneiform in Mesopotamia is called the Old Akkadianseen for example in the inscriptions of the ruler Sargon of Akkad died c. Sumerthe southernmost part of the country, continued to be a loose agglomeration of independent city-states until it was united by Gudea of Lagash died c.
The political hegemony then passed decisively to the Akkadians, and King Hammurabi of Babylon died bce unified all of southern Mesopotamia. Babylonia thus became the great and influential centre of Mesopotamian culture. The Code of Hammurabi is written in Old Babylonian cuneiform, which developed throughout the shifting and less brilliant later eras of Babylonian history into Middle and New Babylonian types.
Farther north in Mesopotamia the beginnings of Assur were humbler. Specifically Old Assyrian cuneiform is attested mostly in the records of Assyrian trading colonists in central Asia Minor c.
The Neo-Assyrian period was the great era of Assyrian power, and the writing culminated in the extensive records from the library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh c.
The expansion of cuneiform writing outside Mesopotamia began in the 3rd millennium, when the country of Elam in southwestern Iran was in contact with Mesopotamian culture and adopted the system of writing.
The Elamite sideline of cuneiform continued far into the 1st millennium bce, when it presumably provided the Indo-European Persians with the external model for creating a new simplified quasi-alphabetic cuneiform writing for the Old Persian language.
The Hurrians in northern Mesopotamia and around the upper stretches of the Euphrates adopted Old Akkadian cuneiform around bce and passed it on to the Indo-European Hittiteswho had invaded central Asia Minor at about that time. In the 2nd millennium the Akkadian of Babylonia, frequently in somewhat distorted and barbarous varieties, became a lingua franca of international intercourse in the entire Middle East, and cuneiform writing thus became a universal medium of written communication.
The political correspondence of the era was conducted almost exclusively in that language and writing. Cuneiform was sometimes adapted, as in the consonantal script of the Canaanite city of Ugarit on the Syrian coast c.
Even after the fall of the Assyrian and Babylonian kingdoms in the 7th and 6th centuries bce, when Aramaic had become the general popular language, rather decadent varieties of Late Babylonian and Assyrian survived as written languages in cuneiform almost down to the time of Christ.
Decipherment of cuneiform Many of the cultures employing cuneiform Hurrian, HittiteUrartian disappeared one by one, and their written records fell into oblivion. The same fate overtook cuneiform generally with astonishing swiftness and completeness.Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum, 𒀝𒂵𒌈 schwenkreis.comû) (also Accadian, Assyro-Babylonian) is an extinct Semitic language (part of the greater Afroasiatic language family) that was spoken in ancient schwenkreis.com earliest attested Semitic language, it used the cuneiform writing system, which was originally used to write ancient Sumerian, an unrelated language schwenkreis.com: Mesopotamia.
software All Software latest This Just In Old School Emulation MS-DOS Games Historical Software Classic PC Games Software Library. Full text of "Old Akkadian Writing and Grammar".
The present study of Old Akkadian writing and grammar is based on sources fully listed and discussed, with references to sources, published and unpublished, in the Old Akkadian glossary soon to be published as MAD 3.
Materials for the Assyrian Dictionary 2 Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Old Akkadian Writing & Grammar by I. J. Gelb. Paperback.
£ (2 used & new offers) Glossary of Old Akkadian, (Materials for the Assyrian dictionary) by Ignace J Gelb. Currently unavailable. Old Akkadian tablets in the Liverpool Museum (Manchester cuneiform studies) software All Software latest This Just In Old School Emulation MS-DOS Games Historical Software Classic PC Games Software Library.
Full text of "Old Akkadian Writing and Grammar". The present study of Old Akkadian writing and grammar is based on sources fully listed and discussed in the Glossary of Old Akkadian published in as MAD III.
The sources are quoted in the measure of their relevance. Thus, under Writing, only the typical examples -ma-tum, ma-na-ma.