Explorer Juan Ponce de Leon ? Ponce de Leon was searching for the legendary fountain of youth and other riches. He was appointed governor of the Dominican province of Higuey. He later heard of gold in the neighboring island of Borinquen now called Puerto Rico and brutally conquered the island, claiming it for Spain.
Columbus founded a colony in today's Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniolawhich became the colonial headquarters for later Spanish explorations and the eventual conquest of powerful empires and tribal peoples from Mexicothe Caribbeanand South America. Columbus' engagement with largely peaceful Indians was often brutal, and his objective of Christianizing native inhabitants was callously compromised by the expedition's quest for gold and the capture and enslavement of Indians.
In the decades after Columbus' voyage, Spanish Conquistadors would overthrow the Aztec and Incan civilizations through superior military technology, singular acts of treachery, and the willing support of subject populations who lived in fear of mass ritual human sacrifice and other forms of oppression.
Native American populations throughout the Western hemisphere would be decimated through colonial occupation by the Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English, largely through epidemic diseases brought by The anniversary of the voyage is observed as Columbus Day throughout the Americas and in Spain.
In recent years, the calamitous consequences of European colonization upon Native American life has been emphasized, while Columbus' extraordinary courage and vision, and the historic movement toward a common human destiny initiated through contact have been construed as a dated evaluation of the explorer that marginalizes the near total subjugation of Native American peoples.
Early life According to the most widely acknowledged biographies, Columbus was born between August and Octoberin Genoa.
His father was Domenico Colombo, a middle-class wool weaver working between Genoa and Savona. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo were his brothers. Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. Christopher Columbus conjectural image by Sebastiano del Piombo.
While information about Columbus' early years is scarce, he probably received an incomplete education. He spoke a Genoese dialect.
In one of his writings, Columbus claims to have gone to the sea at the age of Inthe Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern.
InColumbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro, and Spinola families of Genoa. Later, he allegedly made a trip to Chios, in the Aegean Sea.
In Mayhe took part in an armed convoy sent by Genoa to carry a valuable cargo to northern Europe. He docked in Bristol, Galway, in Ireland and very likely, inhe was in Iceland. InColumbus reached his brother Bartolomeo in Lisbon, keeping on trading for the Centurione family. Inhis son, Diego was born.
No authentic contemporary portrait of Christopher Columbus exists. Over the years historians have presented many images that reconstruct his appearance from written descriptions. They depict him variously with long or short hair, heavy or thin, bearded or clean-shaven, stern or at ease.
Columbus is described as having reddish hair which turned to white early-on in life and a reddish face typically resulting from a lighter skinned person receiving too much sun exposure.
Columbus's campaign for funding Columbus first presented his plan for a western route to the Indies to the court of Portugal in The king's experts believed that the route would be longer than Columbus thought the actual distance is even longer than the Portuguese believedand they denied Columbus' request.
It is probable that he made the same outrageous demands for himself in Portugal that he later made in Spain, where he went next. He tried to get backing from the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, who, by marrying, had united the largest kingdoms of Spain and were ruling them together.
After seven years of lobbying at the Spanish court, where he was kept on a salary to prevent him from taking his ideas elsewhere, he was finally successful in Isabel finally turned Columbus down on the advice of her confessor, and he was leaving town in despair, when Fernando intervened.
Isabel then sent a royal guard to fetch him and Ferdinand later rightfully claimed credit for being "the principal cause why those islands were discovered.
Financially broken from the Granada campaign, the monarchs left it to the royal treasurer to shift funds among various royal accounts on behalf of the enterprise.
According to the contract that Columbus made with King and Queen, if Columbus discovered any new islands or mainland, he would: Be given the rank of Admiral of the Ocean Sea Atlantic Ocean Be appointed Viceroy and Governor of all the new lands Have the right to nominate three persons, from whom the sovereigns would choose one, for any office in the new lands Be entitled to 10 percent of all the revenues from the new lands in perpetuity; this part was denied to him in the contract, although it was one of his demands Have the option of buying one-eighth interest in any commercial venture with the new lands and receive one-eighth of the profits The terms were extraordinary, but as his own son later wrote, the monarchs did not really expect him to return.
Columbus' theories Christian Europe, which had long enjoyed safe passage to India and China—sources of valued goods such as silk and spices—under the hegemony of the Mongol Empire the Pax Mongolica, or "Mongol peace"was by the fifteenth century, after the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire, under complete economic blockade by Muslim states.
In response to Muslim domination on land, Portugal sought an eastward sea route to the Indies, and promoted the establishment of trading posts and later colonies along the African coast. Columbus had a different idea. By the s, he had developed a plan to travel to the Indies then construed roughly as all of south and east Asia by instead sailing directly west across the "Ocean Sea" the Atlantic.Christopher Columbus: Christopher Columbus, master navigator whose four transatlantic voyages opened the way for European exploration and colonization of .
Aug 21, · The story of North American exploration spans an entire millennium andinvolves a wide array of European powers and uniquely American characters. It . The Spanish Inquisition and the Expulsion from Spain in , were some of the most pivotal events in modern times.
Jewish converts penetrated to Christianity, where they could exact their revenge. Jewish Kabbalists became Christian Kabbalists. When they entered Italy, they fostered the Renaissance, and in Amsterdam, the Northern .
The epic mini-series tells the story of the legendary Italian-born explorer Diego de Geona Taino, later known as Christopher Columbus, from his birth in c Genoa, Italy, to his young adult years as an expert sailor and navigator who, with money funded from the monarchy of Spain, sailed to the unknown West to find Asia in , and instead found a 'New World' of the modern day West Indies.
Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. (II) "The Spanish Campaign of ".
(III) "Despatch after the Battle of Corunna by Lieut Gen Sir John Hope". (IV) "Reminisces of a Campaign in the Pyrenees & South of France.